Teen Pregnancy Health Promotion Plan

Nurses are noble professionals who assess populations, promote their health, producing better health outcomes. Promotive and preventive health focuses on preventing illnesses and other health concerns before they arise. It produces healthier populations, hence increased productivity and better-quality lives. Community assessment results help determine community problems and plan their prevention, management, and control. This essay focuses on a health promotion plan that addresses teen pregnancy issues in the community.

Teen Pregnancy, Areas of Uncertainty, and Underlying Assumptions

Teen pregnancy is the pregnancy in girls below 20 years. The US pregnancy rate is about 25 per 1000 females and is highest among girls aged 15-19 (CDC, 2022). The US birth rate is at 15.4 as of 2020, a steady decline over the last decade. Despite the decline, CDC (2022) notes that the US has had the highest pregnancy rate among the developed countries. About 90% of the pregnant teens are unmarried, about 30% end in abortion, and about 15% end in miscarriage. Birth complications are the second leading cause of death among girls aged 15-19, making teen pregnancy a health issue of concern. A major assumption is that all abortions and miscarriages are reported, whether complicated or not. Statistics show that more than 65% of teens who get pregnant complete high school, and less than 10% get a college degree (House et al., 2019). Most of these students are in high school, and drug abuse, poverty, and peer pressure are the leading causes.

Most of these pregnancies remain hidden, and miscarriages and abortions are never reported. Abortions and miscarriages are only reported when teens develop complications. Knowledge of the number of actual teen pregnancies is thus important. These gaps in care have made estimating and planning for teen pregnancy difficult. Attempts to manage the problem, such as sex education and availing family planning services to the teens, have been opposed as immoral and inappropriate, making their progress slow. Sensitizing the affected group is thus an integral step to help in the progressive prevention of teen pregnancy.

Teen Pregnancy and Health Promotion

The largest number of teen pregnancies occur among high school students. The students have less information when joining high school, and thus, educating them about the prevalence, dangers, and how to avoid pregnancy before joining high school is thus a priority. Thus, upper school (grade seven and eight) students are the best group to prevent teen pregnancies. Educating teens helps them seek help and make informed decisions regarding sexual activity. The information helps counter misinformation among high school peers, preventing teenage pregnancy. High school students account for about 80% of pregnancies. Students who drop out of primary and high school have higher chances of getting pregnant. Both genders engage in sexual activity; thus, educating both genders is vital.

Characteristics of the Chosen Hypothetical Group

The target is Mississippi State teens. The specific target population in this state is grade seven and eight students aged 12-14 years. Primary schools in the state accommodate students from all races and ethnic groups. Statistics show that pregnancy and sexual activity rates increase drastically from ages 14 to 19. Thus, it is vital to educate them and prevent pregnancy early. Mississippi is the state with the highest teen birth rate in the US. Mississippi has a high percentage of African Americans (37%) and non-Hispanic whites (53%). The students in upper primary school have less sexual education. This stage is the best to educate them to prevent them from indulging in sex with false information to enhance sexual activity. Education for both genders is integral and equally important to increase responsibility. Besides pregnancy, sexual activity increases the risk for sexually transmitted infections hence the need for educating both genders.

Current Teens Health Data

Teens have various problems such as drug abuse, bullying, suicide, and pregnancy issues. Statistics show that about 3-4% of teens have poor health, with about 4% missing school for more than 11 days due to health problems, and teen pregnancy is the leading cause of chronic absenteeism (House et al., 2022). More than 2.7% of teens smoke, and about 9% abuse alcohol: drug abuse is a leading cause of teen pregnancy (TeenHelp., n.d.). Thus, educating these teens will touch on the drug abuse burden. As noted in the CDC (2022) statistics, pregnancy rates are highest among females between the ages of 15 and 19. This group faces various problems that include puberty. They have secondary sexual changes such as attraction to the opposite gender and the exciting transition to high school. In addition, peer influence, myths, and misinformation in teenage increases the risk for sexual behaviors. Most teens report having sex to “fit in” with peers to a common misconception that having sex is a sign of maturity (Charlton et al.,2018). In addition, a significant percentage of youths reported having sex under drugs. More than a third of pregnant teens admitted to using drugs, a portion almost twice that of the teen population.

Factors Contributing to Health, Health Disparities, and Access to Health Services

TeenHelp (n.d.) reports that teens are more likely to get involved in drug abuse to please peers, and more than half of the teens who get pregnant on drugs influence do so involuntarily. Drugs make young girls vulnerable to pers and older adolescents, hence the high rate of pregnancies among the drug users compared to the teen population. Many institutions do not deliver adequate sex education to teens, making it easy to get misleading information. Thus, teens have no knowledge to help access reproductive health services. Most teens also fear seeking help and opt for abortion to avoid being labeled and discriminated against in society (Charlton et al., 2018). Teens from uneducated families often receive less sex from parents, increasing exposure. Chrlton et al. (2018) also note that individuals with diverse sexual orientations (lesbian and bisexual) are twice likely to get pregnant. Berman et al. (2018) note that individuals from families living below the poverty line are exposed to sexual activity to meet daily needs. These factors contribute to teen pregnancy, health disparities, and poor access to healthcare services.

Importance of Creating Mutual Goals with the Hypothetical Population

Mutually agreed-upon goals are integral when addressing teen pregnancy in this population. Mutually prepared goals will help ensure all areas contributing to teen pregnancy are addressed because both teams agree on what areas to cover, ensuring comprehensiveness and inclusion (Miller et al., 2018). The population will air their problems and question, and so will the facilitator hence better outcomes. Learners and facilitators can assess learning outcomes and achieve set objectives (Miller, 2018). People learn better when they understand the objectives and much better when they participate in setting the objectives. In addition, mutually agreed-upon goals will facilitate program ownership for both. By the end of the learning lesson, the learners must understand the concept of teen pregnancy and be able to teach others. They also should explain the causes of teen pregnancy and the effects of pregnancy among teens. Lastly, the population should outline the methods of teen pregnancy prevention methods.

Conclusion

Teen pregnancy is a health issue that affects majorly high school students. Teens are exposed to pregnancy due to poverty, drug and substance abuse, lack of knowledge, and poor guidance by parents and teachers. Teen pregnancy affects majorly high school students, and health promotion in students before they join high school is important. The education will prevent misinformation and enhance teen pregnancy prevention skills. Creating mutually agreed-upon goals will help enhance the success of the health promotion session.

References

Berman, R. S., Patel, M. R., Belamarich, P. F., & Gross, R. S. (2018). Screening for poverty and poverty-related social determinants of health. Pediatrics in Review39(5), 235-246. https://doi.org/10.1542/pir.2017-0123

Center for Disease Control and Prevention, (2022). Reproductive Health: Teen Pregnancy. https://www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/index.htm

Charlton, B. M., Roberts, A. L., Rosario, M., Katz-Wise, S. L., Calzo, J. P., Spiegelman, D., & Austin, S. B. (2018). Teen pregnancy risk factors among young women of diverse sexual orientations. Pediatrics141(4). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2017-2278

Frederiksen, B. N., Rivera, M. I., Ahrens, K. A., Malcolm, N. M., Brittain, A. W., Rollison, J. M., & Moskosky, S. B. (2018). Clinic-based programs to prevent repeat teen pregnancy: A systematic review. American Journal Of Preventive Medicine55(5), 736-746. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2018.08.001

House, L. D., Tevendale, H., Brittain, A., Burley, K., Fuller, T. R., Mueller, T.,& Koumans, E. H. (2022). Implementation of Community-Wide Initiatives Designed to Reduce Teen Pregnancy: Measuring progress in a 5-Year Project in 10 Communities. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 19(2), 496-508. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13178-021-00565-y

Miller, V. A. (2018). Involving youth with a chronic illness in decision-making: highlighting the role of providers. Pediatrics142(Supplement_3), S142-S148. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-0516D

TeenHelp.com (n.d.). Teen Pregnancy Statistics. Retrieved 5th August 2022, from https://www.teenhelp.com/c/teen-pregnancy/

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