Professional Capstone and Practicum Reflective Journal

New Practice Approaches

The nursing process entails a systematic guide to client-oriented care that contains various sequential components: assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation. Although the nursing profession derives insights from theories and scientific concepts, the current healthcare systems emphasize the need to shift from nurse-led interventions to evidence-based patient-centered care. According to Li et al. (2019), evidence-based practice entails utilizing the best available evidence for decision-making and promoting care efficiency. The need to shift to client-oriented care represents a new nursing approach.

Interprofessional Collaboration

The overriding theme of the current healthcare systems is to work collectively to improve punk health and improve people’s well-being. Busari et al. (2017) argue that collaboration in healthcare enables team members to work cooperatively, share responsibilities for problem-solving, develop team-based decisions, and improve performance. Regardless of the situation, nurses should collaborate with patients and healthcare professionals to ensure care coordination and continuum.

Health Delivery and Clinical Systems

A healthcare delivery system entails the organization of institutions, people, and resources to deliver healthcare services and address the health needs of the target population. A typical health delivery system comprises people, healthcare professionals, organizations such as insurers, and health infrastructure (Vest et al., 2020). Healthcare delivery and clinical procedures are advancing to address the increasing demand for quality, timely, affordable, and coordinated care.

Ethical Considerations in Healthcare

Healthcare professionals bear the obligation of incorporating ethical considerations into clinical practices. According to Haddad & Geiger (2021), nurses should show compassion, respect for inherent dignity, and worth. In this sense, it is essential to consider patients as profound stakeholders, capable of making informed decisions and influencing care trajectories. Ethical principles applicable in the current healthcare systems are beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, and justice.

The practice of Culturally Sensitive Care

The failure to incorporate culturally sensitive interventions into clinical practices can result in multiple ramifications, including significant miscommunication, disempowerment, and decreased patient satisfaction (Jongen et al., 2018). As a result, healthcare professionals should be culturally competent and respect other people’s values, perceptions, worldviews, and preferences.

Ensuring the Integrity of human dignity in the care of all patients

Ensuring human dignity in healthcare entails treating patients as unique beings and respecting their values, beliefs, and preferences (Lindwall & Lohne, 2020). Further, it is possible to foster the inherent patient dignity by valuing interactions, involving them in healthcare practices, and operating according to ethical and professional standards. Eventually, failure to foster patients’ dignity translates to decreased satisfaction, lack of accountability and responsibility, and negatives consequences on health care quality.

Population health concerns

Current healthcare systems grapple with various health concerns that compromise health quality, affordability, and equity. In this sense, health concerns are actual and potential risks that affect well-being and people’s quality of life. Examples of healthcare concerns include high disease prevalence, socio-economic disparities, alcoholism, obesity, and limited access to insurance coverage.

The Role of technology in improving health care outcomes

The widespread use of advanced technologies like telehealth, artificial intelligence, electronic health record systems (EHRS), clinical decision support system (CDSS), and process automation improves healthcare outcomes. According to Alotaibi & Federico (2017), health information technology enhances process efficiency, accuracy, timeliness, and convenience. As a result, healthcare professionals should play a forefront role in facilitating and supporting healthcare technologies.

Health Policy

A health policy defines goals and specifies decisions, plans, and actions pertinent to healthcare at the international, national, or local levels. Due to dynamics in healthcare systems, countries collaborate to conceptualize collective policies to regulate the health sector. At the national level, health policies like the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) influence healthcare activities by directly impacting professional roles.

Leadership and economic models

Effective leadership and economic models in healthcare organizations translate to various benefits, including facilitating proper resource utilization and stewardship, employee motivation, patient satisfaction, and improving the working environment. Economic models involve evaluating market variables like prices, demand, and competition within the market. An example of an economic model is the supply-demand approach. On the other hand, leadership styles include transformative, collaborative, and transactional styles.

Health Disparities

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2020) defines health disparities as “preventable differences in the burden of disease, injury, violence, or opportunities to achieve optimal health that are experienced by socially disadvantaged populations.” It is possible to reduce disparities by addressing social determinants of health, including poverty, environmental threats, and educational inequalities, among others.


Alotaibi, Y., & Federico, F. (2017). The impact of health information technology on patient safety. Saudi Medical Journal38(12), 1173–1180.

Busari, J., Moll, F., & Duits, A. (2017). Understanding the impact of interprofessional collaboration on the quality of care: A case report from a small-scale resource-limited health care environment. Journal of Multidisciplinary HealthcareVolume 10(1), 227–234. NCBI.

CDC. (2020, January 25). Health Disparities.

Haddad, L. M., & Geiger, R. A. (2021, August 30). Nursing ethical considerations. NCBI; StatPearls Publishing.

Jongen, C., McCalman, J., & Bainbridge, R. (2018). Health workforce cultural competency interventions: A systematic scoping review. BMC Health Services Research18(1), 1–15.

Li, S., Cao, M., & Zhu, X. (2019). Evidence-based practice. Medicine98(39), e17209.

Lindwall, L., & Lohne, V. (2020). Human dignity research in clinical practice – a systematic literature review. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences.

Veet, C. A., Radomski, T. R., D’Avella, C., Hernandez, I., Wessel, C., Swart, E. C. S., Shrank, W. H., & Parekh, N. (2020). Impact of Healthcare Delivery System Type on Clinical, Utilization, and Cost Outcomes of Patient-Centered Medical Homes: A Systematic Review. Journal of General Internal Medicine35(4), 1276–1284.

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