NUR 648: Nursing Education and Curricula Planning

Topic 3 DQ 1 (1 reference) Aligning A Course To Professional Standards

Describe the purpose of a course outline. Explain how you would use a course outline to plan what is needed for your proposed course, including how you would use it to outline the specific modules or lessons.

Topic 3 DQ 2 (1 reference)

Describe how professional standards and competencies are incorporated into curricula. Provide a specific example (e.g., QSEN competencies, ANA standards, or standards from other professional nursing organizations).

Topic 4 DQ 1 (1 reference) Teaching Strategies

Compare two different technologies to facilitate learning in a classroom and clinical setting.  Include how they differ according to setting.

Topic 4 DQ 2 (1 reference)

Describe two teaching strategies for your proposed course and explain how they align with one or more of your stated learning objectives.

Topic 5 DQ 1 (1 Reference)  Formative And Summative Assessment

Compare formative and summative assessments. Provide an example of when it is appropriate to use each type of assessment. Discuss how the instructor can use assessment data to improve learning.

Topic 5 DQ 2 (1 reference)

Describe the purpose of a test blueprint and the elements it should include.

Topic 6 DQ 1 (1 reference) Evaluation Of Learning Objectives

Discuss three different assessment strategies and explain in what settings they can be utilized (classroom, clinical, or lab).

Topic 6 DQ 2 (1 reference)

Discuss three types of clinical evaluation tools. What are the pros and cons for each type?

Topic 7 DQ 1 (1 reference) Analyzing Test Data

What are the basic concepts of measurement and data analysis that are used to analyze test results?  Describe each one in detail.

Topic 7 DQ 2 (1 reference)

Explain how analyzing assessment data, including test data, can be utilized to improve teaching strategies, improve learner outcomes, and assist in decision making in academic settings.

Topic 8 DQ 1 (1 reference) Accreditation And Program Outcomes

Discuss the purpose and benefits of accreditation for a nursing program.

Topic 8 DQ 2 (1 Reference)

Discuss the relationship between the systematic program evaluation and program accreditation. Refer to the Teaching in Nursing: A Guide for Faculty textbook for assistance as needed.

Answer

Topic 3 DQ 1

Aligning a Course to Professional Standards

The course outline, commonly referred to as a syllabus, is a legal document essential for planning how and when various sections of the course will be done. Course outlines help the students to understand the course as it stipulates the course requirements, aims, textbooks, learning outcomes, and assessment dates (Graebe et al., 2022). Besides, the details of the tutors, including contacts, are included in the course outline for the necessity of clarity and communication. Enabling students to understand the concepts of the course outlines enables students to plan and attain course outcomes

The course outcomes outline the expectations the student will be able to achieve at the end of the course. In case the outcomes are not achieved, the learners have the right to complain if the outcomes are not achieved when handling assessments. The instructor, therefore, aligns the course instructions to meet the outcomes. The instructor is required to share the course outline’s contents and make learners understand its concepts (Graebe et al., 2022). Upon interactions with course outlines, learners can raise questions that better the learning experience.

Regarding my proposed course, Post-interventional Radiology Procedure- Patient Recovery, having a course outline is applicable to define course objectives, outcomes, learning materials, and assessments. The course will be divided into subtopics with clear objectives, timelines, and outcomes. The required materials, including lecture notes, simulation materials, and various equipment necessary to enhance learning, would be made available to learners and enable them to understand all concepts. Theoretical classes and practical sessions will help in improving understanding of the learning outcomes. Thereafter, learners would be expected to demonstrate various skills and knowledge that would be used to assess what learners understood. Having a course outline will help in planning all the contents of the course.

References

Graebe, J., McIntyre-Hite, L., & Monaghan, D. (2022). The future of workforce development in professional nursing practice. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing53(6), 246–250. https://doi.org/10.3928/00220124-20220505-04

Topic 3 DQ 2

Professional Standards and Competencies

The various professional standards and competencies, including the American Nurse Association (ANA) standards and QSEN competencies, are important in the nursing curriculum. The outstanding contributions of the professional standards in improving nursing proficiency to ensure patient safety are undisputable (Fukada, 2018). Likewise, they are incorporated into every aspect of the nursing curriculum to ensure that nurses acquire proficient skills and knowledge while developing the appropriate attitude necessary for providing competent care that improves patient outcomes. Besides, the level of standards stipulated by these various professional standards and competencies define the minimum requirements for any healthcare provider.

Because professional standards guide clinical practice and evaluate the standards of practice, they state the basic requirements and clinical competency framework to be included in the curriculum to enable learners to develop clinical skills necessary for improving health outcomes. ANA standards contribute to the same effect by stating the standard of practice, supporting nurses’ wellness, and aiding in advocacy about issues affecting nurses (Fukada, 2018). ANA also helps determine the qualifications nurses attain to receive licenses and practice. When included in the curriculum, these provisions improve the standards of care by providing safety and quality care regardless of population, specialty, setting, or role of nurses. Similarly, QSEN competencies uphold the importance of safe care using set standards and incorporating critical thinking in decision-making during care delivery. Furthermore, the ANA standards are applicable in every stage of curriculum development, including planning, implementation, and evaluation. As a result, specific skills and knowledge required for care are revised and included in the curriculum. Finally, the professional standards and competencies identify various areas of improvement to attain patient safety. Similarly, identifying gaps and areas of improvement is paramount in curriculum development while enhancing efficiency.

Reference

Fukada, M. (2018). Nursing competency: Definition, structure, and development. Yonago Acta Medica61(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.33160/yam.2018.03.001

Topic 4 DQ 1

Teaching Strategies

Despite classroom settings being an excellent way of providing knowledge through a plethora of information, it is argued that most learners tend to forget about 70% of the content the next day, thus not being able to apply the same information in real-time clinical scenarios (Coleman & McLaughlin, 2019). Enhancing retention of information requires educators to devise effective means of actively engaging learners in achieving study goals. The importance of the incorporation of technology in improving learning both in the classroom and clinical settings is overwhelming. Two strategies that have been tested and tried with undisputable outcomes in clinical settings involve the use of mannequins and patient simulators. On the other hand, classroom learning can be facilitated using group discussions and lecture presentations.

Patient simulators are computer-controlled manikins that mimic human anatomy and physiology. They function like humans and are used in nursing training to create realistic patient scenarios. The use of patient simulators offers learners an opportunity for high-fidelity realism, developing clinical skills, critical thinking, and communication (Coleman & McLaughlin, 2019). Using patient simulators in the classroom helps learners retain most of the anatomy and physiologic functioning information. While used in clinical settings, patient simulation improves the learning experience while improving clinical skills and knowledge. The simulated cases allow learners to participate actively in offering interventions while applying critical thinking in the process. Mannequins, on the other hand, appear similar to patient simulators but cannot assume the functioning of the human body. They are used to practice procedures, including resuscitation, stitching, and other simple demonstrations. Upon using these technologies, learners can engage each other through group discussions that offer an opportunity for one-on-one discussion that help share information while helping to consolidate the information gathered through practical sessions.

References

Coleman, D., & McLaughlin, D. (2019). Using simulated patients as a learning strategy to support undergraduate nurses to develop patient-teaching skills. British Journal of Nursing (Mark Allen Publishing)28(20), 1300–1306. https://doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2019.28.20.1300

Topic 4 DQ 2

Because my proposed course entails applying nursing knowledge and skills to provide holistic care to patients in critical situations after the intervention, the methods of presenting the course contents are subject to what learners will understand. Therefore, applying teaching strategies that not only improve nursing knowledge strategy through retention of information but also improve skills through practical learning is essential. Furthermore, the objectives and outcomes of the course dictate the incorporation of appropriate teaching strategies. Therefore, for this course, I propose the use of lecture presentations and clinical demonstrations as the main teaching strategies.

Lecture presentation entails the use of prepared notes and group discussion between learners. For instance, vital information regarding patient vitals can be taught to learners through lectures (Horntvedt et al., 2018). This information enables learners to understand the expected oranges of vital signs, including respiratory rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and heart rate, among others. Therefore, learners will be able to interpret findings on patients and, note any abnormalities, then offer care. Furthermore, learners engage in group discussion that further improves their knowledge about the course. Acquiring knowledge can also help learners understand various modalities used for pain management, thus using the information to make decisions. Learners can also access the notes on their own time and make references.

Additionally, demonstration in the clinical setting includes the use of patient simulations and real-patient case scenarios. Simulation helps learners develop critical thinking and handle case scenarios like real patients (Horntvedt et al., 2018). Furthermore, the demonstrations of skills such as insertion of airway devices, resuscitation, monitoring vitals, and placing catheters through simulation improve clinical skills necessary for patient care. Learners will be able to demonstrate these skills this achieve the objectives of the course. Thereafter, interaction with patients further allows learners to demonstrate further skills for holistic patient care.

References

Horntvedt, M.-E. T., Nordsteien, A., Fermann, T., & Severinsson, E. (2018). Strategies for teaching evidence-based practice in nursing education: a thematic literature review. BMC Medical Education18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-018-1278-z

 

Topic 5 DQ 1

Formative and Summative Assessment

In learning institutions, learners are often assessed by analyzing the learning graph to understand their progress. Assessment can either be formative or summative. Comparing the two summative assessments (SA) is the most common and an assessment for learning performed at the end of the course or topic, while formative assessment (FA) is a much more flexible method used as an assessment for learning performed quarterly or monthly (Mogali et al., 2020). FA involves various assessment procedures performed throughout the learning process and allows for adjustment of learning teaching during the learning process based on various diagnostics made. FA aims at enhancing learning. Common FA includes games, quizzes, projects, group activities, and presentations. Most of these activities occur in the classroom as a learning process. Learners are allowed to participate actively in engaged learning while enabling them to flex their creative muscles (Mogali et al., 2020). Besides, instructors offer the guidelines of the syllabus while mixing with extra tasks according to different learners’ needs. Upon completing the course, the instructor understands whom learners are learning a specific subject while offering an opportunity to compare outcomes among various class sections.

On the other hand, SA is a standard for evaluating learning students by measuring competencies. It is applicable in moat formal settings. Learners are assessed either at the end of a topic or the end of the term using written examinations that cover the entire concepts covered (Mogali et al., 2020). A major focus is placed on the results used to determine progress to the next level. Besides, the scores, percentages, and grades attained are used to measure the quality of the curriculum and ranking learners. Unlike SA, which majorly concentrates on grades, FA tracks progress using grades, instincts, and student data. Whatever the outcomes from either assessment show the progress and determine the modalities to be implemented to improve better results. Instructors may consider changing teaching strategies or changing the learning environment to improve learning and enhance performance.

Reference

Mogali, S. R., Rotgans, J. I., Rosby, L., Ferenczi, M. A., & Low Beer, N. (2020). Summative and formative style anatomy practical examinations: Do they have an impact on student’s performance and drive for learning? Anatomical Sciences Education13(5), 581–590. https://doi.org/10.1002/ase.1931

Topic 5 DQ 2

Test Blueprints

A test blueprint is a test plan created during learning to define the contents to be covered and the order they appear in a test. It contains the critical components of the test and guides students on key areas they should cover (Raymond & Grande, 2019). Learners align their studies to the contents of the test blueprint and define the scope they should cover before taking an examination. The test blueprint also guides instructors to align their teaching to meet the objectives or contents in the test blueprint while ensuring accountability in education. This ensures equity between what is taught and the test to be administered. Besides, the validity of the test scores can be assessed using test blueprints as tests are used to assess the level of achievement students attained as directed by the course objectives.

Because of its relevance in the learning process, test blueprints are developed to address various elements of the test. First, they provide the major knowledge, and skills learners are required to attain (Raymond & Grande, 2019). Understanding the course’s core requirements helps learners direct their lining towards grasping the major concepts required to tackle the examinations. Secondly, it addresses the assessment objectives. Objectives can be presented in terms of topics, competency skills, a list of behavioral objectives, or a list of medical conditions with clearly stated learning outcomes. Additionally, blueprints address the format of a test. The format is guided by the curriculum and the various categories of assessment, including practical and written tests (Raymond & Grande, 2019). Finally, it specifies the weight of each category. Each domain of the test is assigned with marks according to its importance and the number of tasks that should be taken. More weight is placed on areas considered most important to the course. These weights are verified by faculty members and considered for examination.

Reference

Raymond, M. R., & Grande, J. P. (2019). A practical guide to testing blueprinting. Medical Teacher41(8), 854–861. https://doi.org/10.1080/0142159X.2019.1595556

Topic 6 DQ 1

Evaluation of Learning Objectives

Assessment of learners is always an ongoing entity in all learning organizations. Assessments are meant to assess the progress of learners as stipulated by objectives, and the results of the assessment are used by instructors to address the areas that require improvement (Toney-Butler & Unison-Pace, 2021). Due to diversity in nursing education, various assessment strategies are employed in various settings, including classrooms, clinical settings, and laboratories. Different assessment methods exist; however, they can be classified broadly into three: written examinations, ongoing class activities, and demonstrations.

Written examinations are a form of summative assessment and the most common assessment strategy in the classroom. Examinations are administered through continuous assessment tests (CATs), end-term tests, or end-of-year tests. These tests are set to cover the specific contents covered during the period. They aim to evaluate learners’ ability to remember the knowledge grasped in classes (Toney-Butler & Unison-Pace, 2021). The final score of the test is used to rank learners and can be used to determine the next level of education. Unfortunately, these tests do not reflect the true picture of a learner as a whole. Contrary to written examination, ongoing class activities provide the true reflection of learners. Instructors actively engage learners in various aspects of learning to determine the progress and level of understanding. Class activities include listing, short quizzes, presentations, group discussions, and projects, among many others. Through these activities, instructors can understand learners’ needs and align teaching to address them.

Finally, demonstrations of knowledge and skills are an assessment strategy in clinical settings. The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is the common method of demonstration where the clinical competency of learners is assessed. During OSCEs, learners are required to use critical thinking to address various simulated scenarios and incorporate clinical skills and knowledge to solve a scenario. Real patients can also be used where learners are required to take history and examine patients.

Reference

Toney-Butler, T. J., & Unison-Pace, W. J. (2021). Nursing admission assessment and examination. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493211/

Topic 6 DQ 2

Clinical Evaluation Tools

The nursing program aims at improving the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of nurses necessary to be proficient nurses. Assessment of these objectives requires using clinical evaluation tools that help the faculty and learners about the effectiveness of a nursing program and competency level based on the outcomes. Common clinical evaluation tools include observational techniques, written communications, viva voices, and practical examination. Notably, the application of either tool has its pros and cons.

To begin with, practical examinations involve the objective structured practical/clinical examination (OSPE/OSCE). Practical examinations can be administered through written or practical stations to assess students’ competency in decision-making, communication and psychomotor skills, and knowledge (Wilson et al., 2021). The pros of this method include fair and reliable as all students are exposed to the same stations; many students can be assessed within a short time; evaluates more objective, and multiple psychomotor skills can be assessed. On the contrary, it is time-consuming to formulate the tool, plan, organize and administer OSPE. Furthermore, a student`s performance cannot be measured in totality. Related to practical examination are oral examinations, which are probing and assessing communication skills and attitudes. Its pros and cons are similar to practical examinations.

Observational techniques are another tool that evaluates psychomotor skills and attitude. It includes rating scales, a checklist, and an anecdotal report. Their use is simple, gathers exceptional information, provides cumulative records, and enables the teacher to direct individualized attention to students (Wilson et al., 2021). On the other hand, they are less reliable, time-consuming, and affected by bias. Finally, written communication reports include patient care reports, patient-oriented care, and patient care conference. They are useful in building nursing knowledge and clinical skills through critical thinking and organized care. However, making these reports is time-consuming and very expensive to disseminate and produce.

References

Wilson, R. D., Wilson, B. L., & Madden, C. (2021). Creating a national standard for prelicensure clinical evaluation in nursing. The Journal of Nursing Education60(12), 686–689. https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20211004-01

Topic 7 DQ 1

Analyzing Test Data

Because in nursing education and the nursing profession, among its various topics, the concepts of data are common. Nurses use data in daily activities and help in decision-making as part of evidenced-based practice (Mishra et al., 2018). Therefore, nurses must understand the basic concepts of measurement and data analysis used in analyzing test results. Understanding the concepts of data, data analysis, and interpretation of data is necessary. To begin with, understanding the test results themselves is the initial concept. Either numerical or categorical data can be used to represent the test results. Besides, analysis of test results requires the use of various statistical methods. Analysis can be achieved using inferential statistics, descriptive, or both. Descriptive statistics are used to have a general overview of data and a summary of the data as it appears (Mishra et al., 2018). No conclusions are included, effect and cause. Compared to descriptive are, inferential statistics which allow for conclusions based on the data. Predictions can also be made from the findings of the data. Both descriptive and inferential statics can be applicable in assessing qualitative data.

When comparing qualitative and quantitative data, qualitative data does not use numerical data to answer why and how, while quantitative data is countable. Measuring and counting can be used to collect quantitative data, while interviews and observation can be used in qualitative data. Analysis of qualitative data uses a thematic approach to identify trends and patterns (Mishra et al., 2018). The software can also be used for the same purpose. On the other hand, analysis of quantitative data can be performed using software or hands to analyze numerically. Applicable methods in the analysis include regression, factor, cluster, and cohort analysis. Finally, the interpretation of data follows the data analysis to draw a conclusion based on data findings. Decisions can be made based on interpretation.

References

Mishra, P., Pandey, C. M., Singh, U., & Gupta, A. (2018). Scales of measurement and presentation of statistical data. Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia21(4), 419–422. https://doi.org/10.4103/aca.ACA_131_18

Topic 7 DQ 2

Test Results and Learning Improvement.

Assessment of learners is a common phenomenon among various institutions to assess the learners’ progress concerning the curriculum requirements. The results obtained from the assessment help both learners and teachers in planning the next course of action. Test data can be used to improve teaching strategies, decision-making, and learning outcomes in several ways.

To begin with, assessment data helps the teacher to differentiate instructions by student readiness. The teacher identifies every learner according to their score compared to their peers. It allows teachers to provide personal instructions that suit their level of needs (Martínez-Linares et al., 2019). When provided to students with lower grades, such instructions are used by the individual student to devise better study plans while cooperating with instructors to improve grades. On the other hand, students with better results are encouraged to improve further.

The other use of test results is to set academic goals. The goals should be realistic and ambitious to align with objectives that enable substantial growth. Teachers identify the patterns or differences in assessment results and set short-term and long-term goals to provide a path toward increasing progress (Martínez-Linares et al., 2019). Besides, learners also make their own goals that align with course requirements to achieve steady progress. Students who focus on their goals rather than aiming to please or compete often attain progress. The teacher can also use the goals to devise better learning strategies as well providing various materials that help improve performance. Finally, the assessment data can be used to evaluate the curriculum and initiate interventions to improve the curriculum. Evaluating the curriculum helps identify whatever is working to realize success verse the sections that require improvement.

References

Martínez-Linares, J. M., Martínez-Yébenes, R., Andújar-Afán, F. A., & López-Entrambasaguas, O. M. (2019). Assessment of nursing care and teaching: A qualitative approach. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health16(15), 2774. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152774

Topic 8 DQ 1

Accreditation and Nursing Programs.

The admiration of the nursing profession for its outstanding contribution to the healthcare sector can not go unnoticed. Enhancing nursing competency requires setting standards that guide the quality of training each nurse should attain. Accreditation of a nursing program is the role of independent, non-government authorities to review the nursing program and ensure that training in the nursing profession is standardized (Poortaghi et al., 2020). The accrediting bodies review all the aspects of the nursing program to ensure that nurses meet the qualifications to pass their examinations. This ensures that all nurses receive standardized training, thus enabling providing quality and holistic care at all levels of their services. Qualified nurses are provided with a license for the practice. Licenses are used to ensure safe care is provided, thus protecting the public. Furthermore, academic quality and public accountability are enhanced thanks to accreditation.

The importance of accrediting nursing programs goes beyond the institution. The accredited institution receives government support in terms of finances and other considerations that ensure standardized training is provided to all nurses. Finances can be provided in terms of loans and grants to only accredited institutions to acquire infrastructure for offering quality training. Besides, Nurses who train in accredited institutions have a better advantage in terms of securing jobs after training (Poortaghi et al., 2020). This is because many employers will trust such nurses to offer quality care and thus employ them. Additionally, students from accredited institutions can sit for national and international exams, which opens their chances of working in other developed nations. Students from unaccredited institutions can not enjoy such an advantage. Finally, having a license from accredited institutions helps in license transfer through reciprocity in case one moves to another state.

Reference

Poortaghi, S., Salsali, M., Ebadi, A., & Pourgholamamiji, N. (2020). Accreditation of nursing clinical services: Development of an appraisal tool. Nursing Open7(5), 1338–1345. https://doi.org/10.1002/nop2.505

Topic 8 DQ 2

The terms accreditation and systematic program evaluation are common in nursing and often used interchangeably. While some scholars agree that they are the same, some appreciate that fact but insist they are related in some ways (Al-Alawi & Alexander, 2020). Nursing accreditation is a practice carried out by nursing councils to standardize the nursing program and ensure proficiency. Comparatively, program evaluation is an ongoing planned intervention in response to perceived social, educational, or commercial needs to achieve a specific outcome. The program evaluation process often includes collecting data to capture processes, program contexts, and processes to identify areas requiring improvement while helping formulate future decisions (Al-Alawi & Alexander, 2020). Fortunately, both processes help in increasing accountability, and excellence, and improving the education sector.

Program evaluation, as opposed to accreditation can be achieved through either summative or formative evaluation. Summative evaluation is carried out upon completion of the program to assess the overall merit of the program. Formative, on the other hand, aims at improving the program`s process by identifying areas requiring improvement. Program evaluation as an entity is considered by accrediting bodies before accrediting any institution. Essential aspects of the program including mission and goals, curriculum quality, institutional commitment, and resources are evaluated as well (Al-Alawi & Alexander, 2020). Because of the importance of program evaluation, institutions have intensified this process to determine institutional performance. Furthermore, accrediting bodies also encourage institutions to perform program evaluations as a requirement to improve the nursing program. The standards of care which are imposed by the accredited bodies can be maintained by performing a continuous evaluation of the program while implementing the concepts and improving practice. Finally, both accreditation and program evaluation are useful in continuous improvement that ensures qualified nurses with proficiency in knowledge and skills are produced to offer holistic care.

Reference

Al-Alawi, R., & Alexander, G. L. (2020). Systematic review of program evaluation in baccalaureate nursing programs. Journal of Professional Nursing: Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing36(4), 236–244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2019.12.003

 

 

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