MN505M2-2: Apply a theory or model of health-related concepts to a community intervention

Community Needs and Health Screening Initiative

Directions

For this assignment, you will pick one recommended screening from United States Preventive Task Force A and B Recommendations. 

An initiative is a project, an event, so something in the community is ideal. Workplace location for employees is fine too. Please include the following suggested level one headings so content is clear and easily identified.

Theory or Conceptual Model

  • Identify a health promotion program theory or conceptual model and describe.
  • Explain how the model or theory applies to the initiative is present.

Population Screening Purpose

  • Identify the screening topic as an A or B preventive screening from the USPSTF.
  • Include two components of topic related community statistics numerically (e.g., mortality, prevalence).
  • Describe target population characteristics.
  • Include age and sex or risk factor and matches the guidelines.
  • Clarify the county and or neighborhood of the population.
  • Provide descriptions on the local population to be screened, including three components: number of persons in the county possibly affected based on sex, age, and racial diversity of the county or state.
  • Include current rates of screening or factors that would impact the need for screening.

Location/ Setting

  • Demonstrate details of the community or workplace event, including three components: type of area or building, time, and day (e.g., Monroe County Senior Center at 9 a.m. to 11 a.m. 4/20/21).
  • Include reasoning and explanation of appropriateness.

Screening Activity

Screening activity plan meets the preventive guidelines process, is descriptive, and includes:

  • Education component description
  • Measures tested
  • Shows evidence the tests are aligned with guideline recommendations
  • Demonstrates possible positive measure/ normal and abnormal ranges
  • Follow up and referral content process included
  • Three clear and measurable outcome goals are included
  • Explanation of how each outcome is affected by the activity

Cost

Detailed cost analysis to perform screening is provided in table form includes the six following line items but not limited to a table containing:

  • Testing instrument costs with source for pricing
  • Staff costs- as appropriate for screening
  • Rental cost- estimate
  • Simple supply costs
  • Any attendee cost
  • Total

(May use volunteer staff but not donations of items. Cost analysis for feasibility needs demonstrated.) Cost analysis total and summary statement should be included.

Summary

Provide a summary of your screening, general benefit to the community, and why it is important. A person should be able to read your paper and understand fully what you are screening, where, when, the costs, and how it is supported in the guideline. Ideally, a person would be able to duplicate your screening initiative based on the clarity you present.

Format expectations:

  • Follows all assignment directions.
  • Introduction and conclusion are included.
  • Information in paragraphs and paper organized to convey the content to the reader.
  • Paper length paper should be 3–4 pages of content.
  • Follows APA in paper format, reference page, in-text citations, or headings.
  • Uses four or more credible peer-reviewed sources.

Master’s-prepared nurse educators, leaders, nurse practitioners, and all specialty nursing fields are contributors to health promotion in populations across the life span. This assignment is focused on preventive screening applications in the community, workplace, or school settings. You should be able to apply this knowledge to their specialty focus related to health promotion and epidemiology.

Answer

Community Needs and Health Screening Initiative

Advanced nursing practice demands the utilization of acquired knowledge and skills to improve societies and communities. Community assessment provides cues and areas that require interventions. Colorectal cancer is a chronic illness affecting both genders, and the condition is more profound in older adults. USPSTF recommends colorectal cancer screening for all adults between 50 and 75 years. This essay evaluates a theory that supports the health promotion initiative and the activities surrounding its successful implementation.

Theory/ Conceptual Model

The health belief model is the most widely applied health promotion theory/ model in healthcare. It has clear and effective abstractions in developing and implementing a health promotion program. The health belief model has several constructs, useful to this activity. Perceived susceptibility– the widely variant self-perception of risk of acquiring a certain disease (Lau et al., 2020). The screening program will also educate the population to inform them of their susceptibility. Perceived severity-the personal feeling of the seriousness of contracting a disease or leaving it untreated affected by personal evaluation considering the social and medical consequences (Lau et al., 2020). Perceived benefits- personal perceptions of the various interventions directed towards preventing or reducing threats of an illness. The education in the screening will include the benefits of getting screened and the disease severity to promote patient action.

Perceived barriers- the personal feelings on obstacles to adhering to or performing the recommended action (Lau et al., 2020). The screening interventions minimize time, cost, and geographical distance barriers to accessing these health services. People tend to seek health services when their barriers are lifted or minimized. Cue to action- triggers that provoke individuals to seek healthcare services such as disease signs or external (advice and availability of the service) (Lau et al., 2020). The program aims to increase cues to action by availing the program to the community. Availability of services at the workplace or living area triggers the individual to act. The last construct is self-efficacy- the individuals’ confidence in performing the behavior successfully. The construct directly relates to whether the person performs the desired behavior.

Population Screening Purpose

The screening of selected is a category A Colorectal Cancer Screening for adults aged 50 to 75 years. Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the US in men and women and the third most common cancer in bother genders, accounting for approximately 8% of all cancer deaths (Ohri et al., 2019). About 1million men and women were diagnosed with colorectal cancer in 2018 (Rawla et al., 2019). The disease is common in older people, especially between 50 and 70 years. The major risk factors include advancing age, family history of colorectal cancers, and personal history of inflammatory bowel conditions. Despite the high risk and severity of colorectal cancer, screening lingers at about 70% (Wong et al., 2019). The rates have been rising, but there is a need for increased screening. The target is the elderly population in Camden County, Georgia. Camden County has a 19.2% African American population and the total population in Camden according to the 2020 census is 54,768 (US Census Quick Facts). Sex and racial diversity have minimal effects on colorectal cancer prevalence and mortality. African Americans have the highest prevalence and high mortalities, but the mortalities are attributed to poor access to healthcare services (Andersen et al., 2019). Older adults screening will help in early diagnosis and successful treatment, and preventive health for this population.

Location/ Setting

The colorectal cancer screening will be held at Camden County Senior Center from 8 am to 4 pm on 20th April 2022. The center is strategically locally in Camden County, with ample space and access to all persons in the county. Choosing an accessible location is vital in ensuring attendance. Individuals seek healthcare services when they are accessible or create convenience for them. The seniors in this center will benefit greatly, and the expected turn up for colorectal cancer screening is high.

Screening Activity

The screening education component will teach the importance of patient follow-up, colorectal cancer statistics, and the importance of periodic screening as per the SUPSTFF guideline. It will also include healthy living education such as quitting smoking and alcohol intake, taking fiber-rich diets, fruits, vegetables, and avoiding high-fat diets.

Measures tested will include a patient history taking and baseline tests, vital signs. These tests will assess the general health condition and personal and familial risks for the disease. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends stool testing, especially for blood (Ohri et al., 2020). The specific test for this is the Guaiac Fecal-Occult Blood Test (gFOBT) which tests for bleeding (occult) by detecting heme in the stool (CDC. 2022). The positive individual will be referred for other complex tests such as sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, and follow-up. Blood in the stool (occult or fresh) will be the referral criteria for the screening. The referred patients will also be followed to ensure they seek the advised care. Colonoscopy is also an important screening test. Colonoscopy and other tests such as biopsies are important diagnostic tests but not significant to this screening.

The priority goal outcomes are increased awareness of colorectal cancer, increased rates of colorectal cancer screening, and decreased mortalities from colorectal cancer (Lau et al., 2021). The education program will inform the elderly on colorectal cancer, and information enhances initiative to prevent it. The information will provoke initiative hence an increase in cancer screening rates. Colorectal cancer screening using gFOBT tests unearths many GIT problems, including infective conditions (CDC, 2022). As mentioned earlier, these infective conditions increase the risk of colorectal cancer. The screening will help manage this condition and lower the risk of colorectal cancer cases (Lau et al., 2021). In addition, a colorectal cancer diagnosis will be diagnosed at the early stages of development hence increased chances of effective management. These events will reduce colorectal cancer incidences and prevalence. Colorectal cancer is relatively preventable and can be treated, and thus colorectal cancer screening is vital to this population.

Cost

Items

Estimated costs

400 gFOBT tests, $25each total: $10,000 (price by colonoscopy assist, n.d)
Staff costs. 6 trained staff, and 2 assistants (volunteers) $10 per individual tested – $4000
Rental Cost (one day) $100 (open space)
Any attendee cost $1500 estimated total
Simple supplies (water, benches, tents, and electricity) $200
Total $15,800

The estimated costs may vary depending on some parameters, such as extra attendees beyond the estimated number. The screening costs are cost-effective and manageable, and the program can be successfully implemented.

Summary

Colorectal cancer screening is vital for older adults between 50 and 75 years. The SUPSTFF recommends colorectal cancer screening for adults between 50 and 70 years. The screening program will be carried out at Camden Senior living on 20th April 2022 for all adults between 50-70 years. This group has an increased to contracting the disease. The screening will educate older adults to increase their self-efficacy and adherence to annual colorectal cancer tests. The screening will thus increase the colorectal cancer screening rates. In addition, it will improve the quality of life for the elderly through healthy habits. Screening diagnoses diseases early in development hence increasing their chances of successful treatment. The screening will thus greatly improve the community’s health.

References

Andersen, S. W., Blot, W. J., Lipworth, L., Steinwandel, M., Murff, H. J., & Zheng, W. (2019). Association of race and socioeconomic status with colorectal cancer screening, colorectal cancer risk, and mortality in southern US adults. JAMA Network Open, 2(12), e1917995-e1917995. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.17995

Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2020). Colorectal Cancer Screening Tests. Accessed 18the March 2022 from https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/colorectal/basic_info/screening/tests.htm

Colonoscopy assist (n.d.). Colon Cancer Screening Stool Test. Accessed 18the March 2022 from https://colonoscopyassist.com/FIT_Kit.html

Lau, J., Lim, T. Z., Wong, G. J., & Tan, K. K. (2020). The health belief model and colorectal cancer screening in the general population: A systematic review. Preventive Medicine Reports, 20, 101223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2020.101223

Ohri, A., Robinson, A., Liu, B., Bhuket, T., & Wong, R. (2020). Updated assessment of colorectal cancer incidence in the US by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 65(6), 1838-1849.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-019-05913-y

Rawla, P., Sunkara, T., & Barsouk, A. (2019). Epidemiology of colorectal cancer: incidence, mortality, survival, and risk factors. Przeglad Gastroenterologiczny, 14(2), 89. https://dx.doi.org/10.5114/pg.2018.81072

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