Immune System

Discuss characteristic findings of immune dysfunction for either hypersensitivity reactions or AIDS. Explain what symptomology the patient would exhibit and how these symptoms may complicate daily living and relationships.


The immune system safeguards the body against pathogens, enabling it to fight off foreign disease-causing microorganisms. However, the immune system is susceptible to progressive pathogens that result in life-threatening conditions and massive immune dysfunctions. For example, an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an immune deficiency emanating from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). According to Randall (2018), HIV is a retrovirus, meaning it inserts a DNA copy of its genome into the infected cells to facilitate replication. Notably, the immune dysfunction associated with HIV/AIDS emanates from the virus’s ability to target CD4 lymphocytes, leading to the subsequent depletion that exposes the infected individuals to many opportunistic infections, including cancer, tuberculosis, and other secondary diseases.

HIV/AIDS is a chronic and progressive disease whose symptoms vary consistent with infection stages. Kaplan (2021) argues that the early stage of HIV infections can manifest through symptoms such as fever, skin rash, sore throat, fatigue, and swollen lymph nodes. However, these symptoms diminish within 1-6 weeks, ushering in the latency stage that extends from months up to 10 years. During the latency stage, the infected individuals display few to no symptoms, making it complex to intercept the transmission patterns of the disease.

An absence of effective treatment options during the second stage can facilitate viral advancements to the third stage, AIDS. According to Kaplan (2021), individuals diagnosed with AIDS have fewer than 200 CD4 cells/mm³, meaning the immune system can no longer fight off the infection. This stage manifests through the proliferation of opportunistic infections and diseases such as candidiasis, Pneumocystis pneumonia, Kaposi sarcoma, lymphoma, and tuberculosis. Also, AIDS results in short-and long-term side effects, including fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, liver damage, heart disease, kidney failure, psychiatric outcomes, and osteoporosis. These side effects compromise people’s quality of life. Since there is no cure for AIDS, nurses should educate the public about the causes of HIV, including risky sexual behaviors, mother-to-child transmission, and sharing sharp objects (Kaplan, 2021). Public education programs should emphasize safe sex practices, lifestyle modification, a healthy diet, smoking cessation, and physical exercise.


Kaplan, J. E. (2021, December 4). Effects of HIV on the body. WebMD.

Randall, J. (2018). Cellular and immunological complexities. In GCU (Ed.), Pathophysiology Clinical Applications for Client Health (1ed.). Retrieved from

Do you need your nursing assignments done for you? Worry no more, at online nursing paper writers we have specialist in nursing writing and research. Message us today for the best deals.