Health Promotion Plan for Tobacco Cessation

Choose a specific health concern or health need as the focus of your hypothetical health promotion plan. Then, investigate your chosen concern or need and best practices for health improvement, based on supporting evidence.
Bullying.
Teen Pregnancy.
LGBTQIA + Health.
Sudden Infant Death (SID).
Immunizations.
Tobacco use (include all: vaping e-cigarettes, hookah, chewing tobacco, and smoking) cessation. (MUST address all tobacco products).
Create a scenario as if this project was being completed face-to-face.
Identify the chosen population and include demographic data (location, lifestyle, age, race, ethnicity, gender, marital status, income, education, employment).
Describe in detail the characteristics of your chosen hypothetical individual or group for this activity and how they are relevant to this targeted population.
Discuss why your chosen population is predisposed to this health concern or health need and why they can benefit from a health promotion educational plan.
Based on the health concern for your hypothetical individual or group, discuss what you would include in the development of a sociogram. Take into consideration possible social, economic, cultural, genetic, and/or lifestyle behaviors that may have an impact on health as you develop your educational plan in your first assessment. You will take this information into consideration when you develop your educational plan in your fourth assessment.
Identify their potential learning needs. Collaborate with the individual or group on SMART goals that will be used to evaluate the educational session (Assessment 4).
Identify the individual or group\’s current behaviors and outline clear expectations for this educational session and offer suggestions for how the individual or group needs can be met.
Health promotion goals need to be clear, measurable, and appropriate for this activity. Consider goals that will foster behavior changes and lead to the desired outcomes.

Answer

Health Promotion Plan for Tobacco Cessation

American adults use various tobacco products, including cigarettes, cigarillos, pipes, smokeless tobacco, and kreteks. This habit exposes them to multiple health ramifications and economic consequences. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2017), more than 16 million Americans live with smoking-related diseases. In the same breath, tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable diseases, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung diseases, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and chronic bronchitis. Additionally, the American Cancer Society (2020) argues that tobacco use habits such as cigarette smoking result in other health-related challenges, including gum disease and tooth loss, miscarriages and stillbirths, reduced fertility, and a high risk of rheumatoid arthritis. While these consequences lead to premature mortalities and compromised quality of life, this health promotion plan presents disparities in tobacco use, elaborates on consensus goals for tobacco use cessation, and identifies areas of uncertainty.

Why Tobacco Use is a Health Concern

Cigarette smoking, dip-see smokeless tobacco, pipes, cigarillos, and kreteks increase users’ susceptibility to multiple health and economic consequences. One of the most profound concerns for tobacco use is the likelihood of premature deaths due to active and passive usage. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2022), cigarette smoking alone accounts for more than 480000 deaths every year, or about 1 in every five deaths. Although cigarette smokers have declined from 20.9% in 2005 to about 12% in 2020, approximately 30 million American adults currently smoke cigarettes. Undeniably, this consideration renders users susceptible to chronic conditions such as COPD, cancer, heart disease, and diabetes, leading to increased mortality, lengthy hospitalization, increased care costs, dependency on pharmacologic interventions, and disabilities. As a result, it is essential to emphasize the rationale of implementing a tobacco use cessation program to reduce the target population’s vulnerability to tobacco use-related health effects and improve their health.

Participant Characteristics, Underlying Assumptions, and Areas of Uncertainty

This health promotion plan targets 12 adults aged 55-75 years grappling with tobacco use habits and with a history of tobacco use of over 25 years. The gender distribution for the participants is seven men and five women. Finally, the target population has socio-economic characteristics, including different education levels and economic statuses. However, they share locational factors since they live in rural neighborhoods, especially in underserved regions. Considering these aspects is to understand the correlation between social determinants of health and prevalent tobacco use among American adults.

Underlying Assumptions and Areas of Uncertainty

Although the participants are willing to participate in tobacco use cessation programs, they possess underlying assumptions that cessation programs are ineffective and would expose them to more health concerns if they quit smoking. In this sense, some participants believe that quitting tobacco use would alter their stress management mechanisms and affect their wellness, social activeness, and general fitness. As a result, dismantling these perceptions and assumptions presents uncertainty due to the challenges encountered when challenging mental and behavioral status quos.

Contributing Factors to Health Disparities and Access to Services Among Tobacco Users

The causative and contributing factors for health disparities among tobacco users often rely massively upon the interplay and interrelationships between social determinants of health. According to Marbin & Gribben (2019), low-income individuals, people with mental health conditions, low-level education adults, and unemployed people are more susceptible to tobacco use and the associated health ramifications, including cancer and heart disease. On the other hand, CDC (2022) argues that cigarette smoking is higher among people of unique sexual orientation like lesbians, gay, and bisexual adults than heterosexual/straight adults. Finally, ethnic minorities and people grappling with marital issues such as divorce use tobacco products as a mechanism for stress management amidst complex situations. These factors compromise access to quality and timely care for vulnerable populations.

Agreed-upon Objectives and Goals

This health promotion plan aims to facilitate the implementation of non-pharmacologic interventions for assisting the target population in quitting tobacco use. According to Hersi et al. (2019), it is possible to prevent tobacco use habits such as cigarette smoking by province behavioral and sensory cues, conducting behavioral therapies, and introducing users to physical exercise. Therefore, the consensus goals for the plan include:

  • Altering tobacco use routines by engaging participants in physical activities and social interactions, including group therapies.
  • Implement the 5R (Relevance, Risks, Rewards, Roadblocks, and Repetition) framework to educate participants on tobacco use and the potential benefits of quitting the habit.
  • Reduce cigarette smoking by two cigarettes per day by providing alternative sensory cues, conducting follow-up activities, and relieving cravings for tobacco products.
  • Involving participants in weekly 90-minute exercise sessions and group therapies to prevent withdrawal symptoms and improve response to smoking cessation programs.

Conclusion

Undeniably, tobacco use and related habits like cigarette smoking result in premature deaths, high care costs, disabilities, prolonged hospitalization, and dependency. American adult tobacco users are susceptible to chronic conditions such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), diabetes, and addiction. Consequently, it is essential to understand and address health disparities and social determinants of health that facilitate tobacco use habits, including poverty, stress, unemployment, and neighborhood issues. Further, it is crucial to prioritize tobacco use cessation programs that improve users’ knowledge and awareness while providing alternative sensory cues to alleviate withdrawal symptoms. When implementing cessation initiatives, it is vital to involve participants in setting goals and designing interventions for addressing areas of uncertainty.

References

American Cancer Society. (2020, October 28). Health risks of smoking tobacco. Www.cancer.org. https://www.cancer.org/healthy/stay-away-from-tobacco/health-risks-of-tobacco/health-risks-of-smoking-tobacco.html

CDC. (2017, February 9). Health effects of smoking and tobacco use. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/health_effects/index.htm#

CDC. (2022, March 16). Current cigarette smoking among adults in the United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/adult_data/cig_smoking/index.htm#

Hersi, M., Traversy, G., Thombs, B. D., Beck, A., Skidmore, B., Groulx, S., Lang, E., Reynolds, D. L., Wilson, B., Bernstein, S. L., Selby, P., Johnson-Obaseki, S., Manuel, D., Pakhale, S., Presseau, J., Courage, S., Hutton, B., Shea, B. J., Welch, V., & Morrow, M. (2019). Effectiveness of stop smoking interventions among adults: Protocol for an overview of systematic reviews and an updated systematic review. Systematic Reviews8(28). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-018-0928-x

Marbin, J. N., & Gribben, V. (2019). Tobacco use as a health disparity: What can pediatric clinicians do? Children6(2), 31. https://doi.org/10.3390/children6020031

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