Global Healthcare Issues and Policies

Part 1: Global Health Comparison Matrix

Obesity and sugar addiction in the Philippines and USA

Focusing on the country you selected and the U.S., complete the Global Health Comparison Matrix. Be sure to address the following:

Consider the U.S. national/federal health policies that have been adapted for the global health issue you selected from the WHO global health agenda. Compare these policies to the additional country you selected for study. To compare USA and the Philippines

The Nurse\’s Role in Global Healthcare

Part 2: A Plan for Social Change

Reflect on the global health policy comparison and analysis you conducted in Part 1 of the Assignment. In a 1-page response, create a plan for social change that incorporates a global perspective or lens into your local practice and role as a nurse leader.

Explain how you would advocate for the incorporation of a global perspective or lens into your local practice and role as a nurse leader.

Explain how the incorporation of a global perspective or lens might impact your local practice and role as a nurse leader.

Explain how the incorporation of a global perspective or lens into your local practice as a nurse leader represents and contributes to social change. Be specific and provide examples.

Answer

Use this document to complete the Module 6 Assessment Global Healthcare Comparison Matrix and Narrative Statement

Introduction:

Obesity is the leading cause of preventable health ramifications, including premature deaths, disabilities, and a high risk of chronic conditions such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancer, diabetes, and respiratory complications. According to UNICEF (2022), obesity affects about 800 million individuals, exposing them to multiple health risks. Therefore, it is essential to address the causative and contributing factors for obesity, including sugar addiction, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet by implementing an evidence-based health policy. This assessment provides a close comparison between the United States and the Philippines in regards to health policies for addressing obesity and sugar addiction.

Global Healthcare Issue

Obesity and Sugar Addiction

Description

Obesity is a profound health concern that affects over 800 million people globally (UNICEF, 2022). In the US, about 42.4% of the total population grapples with obesity, increasing people’s susceptibility to obesity-related conditions, including heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and cancer (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2021). A policy for managing obesity and sugar addiction focuses on promoting preventive behaviors and interventions for addressing risk factors for obesity, including promoting physical activeness, educating people about diets, and enhancing behavioral transformation programs.

Country

United States

Philippines

Describe the policy in each country related to the identified healthcare issue

Undeniably, obesity is a health problem in the United States, considering its association with chronic conditions such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). To address this problem, the country relies massively upon the Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 as the landmark policy for promoting quality care and addressing factors for health inequalities regarding obesity prevalence and effects. According to Owens (2019), the Affordable Care Act enables obese people to access timely screening and management interventions for physiological and behavioral sleep disturbances under the obesity screening and counseling provision in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA).

Equally, the Philippines’ government enacted the National Health Insurance Act (NHIA) of 2013 as a pathway for achieving universal health coverage (UHC). Unlike the Affordable Care Act, the NHIA provides for mandatory coverage of all citizens by automatically enrolling them in the universal health care and categorizing citizens into formal and non-formal groups for convenient funding through the National General Appropriations Act (Obermann et al., 2018). Consequently, this policy plays a significant role in improving public health by availing addressing the health affordability issue. In the context of obesity management, the NHIA provides citizens with opportunities for early screening and advanced care through government appropriations to curtail out-of-pocket expenses.

What are the strengths of this policy?

The Affordable Care Act’s strengths exist under the premise of expanding Medicaid and allowing healthcare professionals to embrace innovations to improve public health. Also, the

The policy encourages health organizations to prevent avoidable readmissions through the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) of 2012 which emphasizes care coordination, interdisciplinary collaboration, and effective care provision to prevent re-hospitalization of patients with various conditions, including heart disease and myocardial infarction.

Equally, the National Health Insurance Act (NHIA) of 2013 exhibits various strengths consistent with the determination to address health disparities and social determinants of health for the Philippines. According to Obermann et al. (2018), the policy covers a wide range of health issues, including governance, regulation, human resources, health service delivery, and health information systems. In the context of obesity management, the NHIA covers inpatient, outpatient care, and emergency/transfer services, meaning people can access subsidized healthcare services.

What are the weaknesses of this policy?

The major weaknesses of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) include the failure to provide universal coverage, states’ unwillingness to expand Medicaid, and tax penalties for uninsured people. For instance, a lack of universal health coverage means that a large section of people grappling with poverty and low socioeconomic statuses cannot afford insurance premiums. On the other hand, some states have not yet expanded Medicaid, creating imbalances and inconsistencies in addressing public health problems such as obesity and chronic conditions.

On the other hand, the major weakness of the National Health Insurance Act (NHIA) is the ever-increasing economic burden of covering all Philippines. Although the policy categorizes citizens as either formal or non-formal, the widespread poverty and lower socioeconomic statuses mean that the government should allocate more financial resources through the National General Appropriations Act (Obermann et al., 2018). Amidst the increasing population and ever-expanding demand for quality care, the Philippine government must allocate more resources to ensure the policy’s sustainability.

Explain how the social determinants of health may impact the specified global health issue. (Be specific and provide examples)

In the United States, obesity is disproportionate to people with special social determinants of health. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2021), ethnic minorities such as non-Hispanic Black adults have the highest age-adjusted prevalence of obesity. Also, the population’s education levels contribute to obesity prevalence where people of high-level education are aware of preventive interventions. Finally, access to healthy foods and physical exercise opportunities are among profound determinants of health regarding obesity prevalence and effects.

The Philippines is a lower-middle-income country that grapples with various social determinants of health that exacerbate obesity prevalence and effects. According to de Juras et al. (2021), limited access to healthy food among low-income families is a profound contributor to obesity in the country. Other social determinants of health (SDOH) include limited opportunities for physical exercise, low-level education among low-income families, and neighborhood issues such as inadequate health infrastructure for timely weight screening and obesity prevention.

How has each country’s government addressed cost, quality, and access to the selected global health issue?

Through the Affordable Care Act (ACA), people can access early screening and counseling interventions pertinent to weight management. By expanding Medicaid, the US government provides opportunities for people to access affordable insurance premiums. This aspect is essential in addressing the accessibility problem. Finally, the government calls for intensified inter-organizational collaboration in implementing obesity prevention measures, including modifying towns and cities to incorporate physical activities and educating people about self-management approaches for obesity prevention.

Equally, the Philippine government enacts policies for addressing the cost, quality, and access issues regarding obesity. Firstly, the National Health Insurance Act (NHIA) mandates the universal coverage of citizens regardless of their socio-economic statuses. This aspect addresses the problem of access to quality care. According to UNICEF (2022), the Philippine government provides healthy school food environments for children and strengthens appropriate social and behavioral transformation programs for a healthy diet and physical activities. Also, the government provides subsidies to farmers to enhance access to nutritious foods.

How has the identified health policy impacted the health of the global population? (Be specific and provide examples)

Although obesity is a leading cause of premature deaths and preventable health concerns in the US, a policy for managing obesity and sugar addiction capitalizes on proven interventions such as physical exercise, diet education, and behavioral modification to promote preventive norms. These interventions can enable obese people to manage their body weight and address risk factors for obesity. For example, consistent physical activity and a healthy diet are consistent with reduced Body Mass Index (BMI), a primary positive indicator of healthy weight management.

Preventing obesity and overweight by implementing a preventive policy provide national and global hope of addressing obesity-related ramifications such as chronic diseases and increased economic burden. Also, the Philippines grapples with childhood and adulthood obesity, and the plausibility of physical exercises, diet education, and behavioral modification programs provide hope for investigating non-pharmacologic options for addressing the problem. For example, providing school children with healthy meals is a profound strategy for addressing childhood obesity.

Describe the potential impact of the identified health policy on the role of nurses in each country.

The nurses’ role in preventing obesity is ever-expanding due to overemphasis on non-pharmacologic interventions. In the United States, nurses are responsible for advocating for public health by influencing policies and spearheading community-based diet education programs, as well as collaborating with other care providers like dietitians and physical therapists in designing programs for promoting physical activeness (Walsh et al., 2019).

Equally, nurses in the Philippines are responsible for educating the public about healthy diets to increase their awareness of preventive interventions for obesity. Also, they can participate in designing cost-effective, inclusive, and evidence-based physical exercise programs to enable obese adults to manage their body weight. Finally, nurses can collaborate with government agencies and other healthcare professionals in overseeing healthy food programs for school children.

Explain how global health issues impact local healthcare organizations and policies in both countries. (Be specific and provide examples)

A high prevalence of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancer, and diabetes in the US prompt the government to review its health policies to address sources of health inequalities. For example, a high prevalence of obesity-related deaths among African American population coerces the government to build partnerships with local organizations to implement community-based early screening, counseling, and physical exercise programs.

On the other hand, the Philippine government invests massively in addressing the problems of care quality, access, and affordability through the National General Appropriations Act. In essence, a high global and national prevalence of obesity creates a sense of urgency for the government to emphasize non-pharmacologic interventions such as physical exercise, food programs for school children, and diet education.

General Notes/Comments

Despite the promise of addressing health disparities by implementing the Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010, the US government is yet to achieve this objective. The limitations of implementing ACA manifest when addressing obesity by creating imbalances between insured and uninsured populations. The country should continue investing massively in community-based education programs and availing physical exercise opportunities to vulnerable populations to address obesity.

The Philippine government continues to implement the National Health Insurance Act (NHIA) despite the policy’s likelihood of inflicting more resource burden. This policy has enabled people to access quality care regardless of their socio-economic statuses. Concerning measures for addressing obesity, the country supports physical exercise programs, community-based diet education initiatives, and interventions for behavioral transformation among vulnerable populations.

Conclusion:

Despite the inconsistencies in addressing obesity among the two countries, implementing a policy for preventing obesity and sugar addiction supports the plausibility of physical exercises, diet education, and behavioral modification initiatives. Regardless of the social determinants of health (SDOH) in the US and the Philippines, physical activeness, ensuring access to healthy foods, and modifying people’s behaviors remain the gold standards for preventing and managing obesity globally.

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, September 30). Adult obesity facts: Obesity is a common, serious, and costly disease. https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html#

de Juras, A. R., Hsu, W.-C., & Hu, S. C. (2021). Prevalence and determinants of the co-occurrence of overweight or obesity and micronutrient deficiencies among adults in the Philippines: Results from a national representative survey. Nutrients13(7), 2339. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072339

Obermann, K., Jowett, M., & Kwon, S. (2018). The role of national health insurance for achieving UHC in the Philippines: A mixed-methods analysis. Global Health Action11(1), 1483638. https://doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2018.1483638

Owens, H. (2019). Sleep-an essential component of obesity screening and counseling: A policy analysis of the Affordable Care Act. INQUIRY: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing56, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1177/0046958019842001

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