Description of the High-Risk Group and Population-Based Health Condition

This assignment will be completed in two parts. The purpose of this two-part assignment is to identify an at-risk population, evaluate the disparities contributing to their health issue, and propose an intervention to improve health for that community. General Requirements A minimum of three scholarly or peer-reviewed research articles are required. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content. Doctoral learners are required to use APA style for their writing assignments. The APA Style Guide is located in the Student Success Center. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance. Directions The purpose of this assignment is to evaluate an at-risk population affected by a population-based health condition. You will use the topic you select here to complete Part II of this assignment. Write a 750-1,000-word paper and include the following. Refer to the topic Resource \”Data and Statistics\” for examples of population-based health conditions. Select a population-based health condition and a high-risk group affected by the population-based condition. An example of this would be looking at the prevalence rates of diseases (population-based health condition) in vaccinated children versus groups where parents may withhold vaccinations because of feared side effects (high-risk group). Describe the high-risk group and population-based health condition you selected. Explain why this group is considered high-risk. Compare the prevalence rate of the selected population-based health condition for this high-risk group between two similar areas (county to county, state to state, country to country). Refer to the topic Resources for assistance with your comparison. Evaluate the social determinants that lead to disparities and health outcomes for your selected at-risk population and explain why they differ between your selected population and a population of comparison from a similar area. Discuss what evidence-based interventions have been introduced to try and improve the health outcomes for this high-risk population and whether they have been effective. Discuss current electronic or online consumer health information available for the population on the health issue (e.g., the topic Resource, Find and Compare Nursing Homes, Hospitals and Other Providers Near You.

Answer

Description of the High-Risk Group and Population-Based Health Condition

Chronic diseases place a considerable strain on patients and the healthcare system as a whole. Diabetes mellitus, a chronic disease, is a population-based health condition that will bear the brunt of the subsequent discussion. Adult patients aged 18 and above are the recognized high-risk population for the condition. The adult population in the United States (US) is growing sedentary, as aggregated data from 2017 to 2020 for 52 jurisdictions, 49 of which are states in the US, reveal that the total prevalence of physical inactivity was 25.3% (CDC, 2022a). Furthermore, during the last two decades, the adult population has consumed a rising amount of unhealthy junk food, increasing their risk of diabetes mellitus.

Alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking are two more health-risk behaviors that make this demographic a high-risk group. According to statistics, more than half of US individuals reported consuming alcohol in the previous 30 days, and 12.5% of US adults smoked in 2020. (CDC, 2022b). Obesity and hyperlipidemia, in addition to physical inactivity and unhealthy eating, are modifiable risk factors for diabetes mellitus. Age, family history, hypertension, and ethnicity are non-modifiable risk factors that raise the population’s risk of diabetes, with African Americans, Native Americans, and Latinos being more predisposed.

Comparison of the Prevalence Rates of the Selected Population-Based Health Condition for the High-Risk Group Between Two Similar Areas

Diabetes prevalence varies by geographical location in the population aged 18 and older. The prevalence is compared between the United States and the United Kingdom. By 2020, about 11.3% of the population, or 37.3 million people, in the United States had diabetes, with 28.7 million diagnosed and 8.5 million undiagnosed (CDC, 2021). On the other hand, according to Whicher et al. (2020), around 7% of the UK population has diabetes, which is broadly the same throughout the four nations of the UK. As discussed below, several variables contribute to the disparities in diabetes prevalence between the two geographical contexts.

Social Determinants Leading to Disparity and Health Outcomes for the Selected High-Risk Population

Income disparity is one of the most significant socioeconomic elements influencing an individual’s overall health. People living in poverty are less likely to get appropriate nutrition or participate in physical exercise since their only available time is spent seeking food to eat. Furthermore, those living in poverty are less likely to be able to pay even the most basic medical insurance premiums, making it harder to obtain and use healthcare services. As a result, a poor socioeconomic position is significantly associated with an increased risk of developing obesity. In 2021, the national poverty rate in the United States was 12.8%, while in the United Kingdom, over 22% of the whole population lives in relative poverty (US Census Bureau, 2022). While poverty rates in the UK seem to be higher than in the US, real income imbalance is worse in the US, owing to a weak economy and rising unemployment, a lack of affordable housing, increasing drug use among the adult population, low educational attainment, and high medical expenditures. As a result of the apparent inequality in socioeconomic determinants of health, the adult population in the United States with diabetes mellitus bears a disproportionate burden in terms of access and usage of healthcare services compared to the equivalent group in the United Kingdom.

Evidence-Based Interventions Introduced to Improve the Health Outcomes of the High-Risk Population

Many approaches have been tested in the quest to reduce the burden of diabetes in the specified population and the broader healthcare system. Technology is increasingly being used to improve the health outcomes of many populations, especially those affected by chronic illnesses such as diabetes mellitus. While the Covid19 outbreak caused havoc in several industries, it turned out to be a blessing in disguise, spurring the use of telemedical interventions in patient care, a radical measure developed to facilitate non-physical interaction between the provider and patient. Adult diabetic patients’ treatment is gradually shifting away from routine outpatient physical appointments and toward telemedical interventions that allow for the care of remotely located patients.

Several studies have been conducted on the use of different telemedical interventions for the treatment of diabetic patients, with variable results. According to McDonnell’s (2018) review, telemedicine is associated with modest glycemic control, which is achieved through improved medication adherence, improved adherence to lifestyle interventions (physical activity, healthy eating, weight loss), and continuous health education facilitated through a real-time connection between healthcare providers and patients. Concerning cost-effectiveness, Lee and Lee (2018) find in a comprehensive analysis that telemedical techniques are cost-effective, with teleophthalmology topping the pack with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio ranging from $113.48/QALY to $3,328.46/QALY (adjusted to 2017 inflation rate). Telemedical techniques are beneficial for diabetes care in adult patients based on the clinical impact of increasing glucose control and minimizing complications, the economic effect (cost-effectiveness), and the patient’s recommendations for expanded use of the intervention.

Electronic or Online Consumer Health Information Available for the Population on the Health Issue

To better manage their condition and control complications, diabetic patients need access to healthcare information regarding their condition. Diabetic patients learn critical strategies such as the necessity of medication adherence, lifestyle modifications, continuous blood glucose monitoring, and many more via self-education. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website provides credible diabetic healthcare information. The American Diabetes Association’s website also contains information on diabetes risk factors, management, research, support, and advocacy. Further, the National Diabetes Education Program website includes reliable information that diabetes individuals may consume. There are no restrictions on accessing the content on the different websites; the only prerequisites are an internet connection and the ability to read.

Conclusion

Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading causes of morbidity, death, and disability worldwide. Adults are at a much higher risk of acquiring the disease due to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle, intake of unhealthy food, and participation in health-risk behavior such as alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Compared to the UK, the US has a much higher prevalence of diabetes among its adult population, a fact that may be attributed to the aforementioned increase in poor lifestyle choices. Even though the UK has a greater relative poverty rate than the US, actual income disparities in the US make access and utilization of healthcare services more challenging. To alleviate the plight of adult diabetic patients, future planners and policymakers should establish a strong economy that improves employment, and increase medical insurance coverage with cheaper options that even low-to-middle-income individuals can afford.

 

References

CDC. (2021, June 29). National Diabetes Statistics Report. Cdc.gov. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/data/statistics-report/index.html

CDC. (2022a, October 20). Adult physical inactivity prevalence maps by race/ethnicity. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/data/inactivity-prevalence-maps/index.html

CDC. (2022b, October 27). 2021 BRFSS survey data and documentation. Cdc.gov. https://www.cdc.gov/brfss/annual_data/annual_2021.html

Lee, J. Y., & Lee, S. W. H. (2018). Telemedicine cost-effectiveness for diabetes management: A systematic review. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics20(7), 492–500. https://doi.org/10.1089/dia.2018.0098

McDonnell, M. E. (2018). Telemedicine in complex diabetes management. Current Diabetes Reports18(7), 42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1015-3

US Census Bureau. (2022). Poverty rate of children higher than national rate, lower for older populations. https://www.census.gov/library/stories/2022/10/poverty-rate-varies-by-age-groups.html

Whicher, C. A., O’Neill, S., & Holt, R. I. G. (2020). Diabetes in the UK: 2019. Diabetic Medicine: A Journal of the British Diabetic Association37(2), 242–247. https://doi.org/10.1111/dme.14225

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